Nutrition of plant crops

Proper growth and development of plants requires a balanced balance of nutrients found in the soil.

Optimum plant nutrition

According to their physiological role, nutrients are divided into essential macro and microelements and useful elements. Macroelements can be divided into primary and secondary.

Primary macroelements are those without which plants cannot grow or develop. Without them, they cannot complete the vegetative and reproductive phase of their life cycle, and that is why they are present in larger quantities in plants. The most important of them are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K).

Secondary macroelements play the same role as primary macroelements and are required for optimal plant growth and development. These include sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), and their role is important in defining the yield and quality of cultivated crops.

Microelements are elements whose presence enhances and complements the effect of macroelements and have a beneficial effect on numerous physiological processes in plants. These include boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Their presence in certain metabolic functions gives them an important role in the plant nutrition process.

All necessary macro and microelements are included in Elixir Zorka mineral fertilizers

7 N Nitrogen
15 P Phosphorus
19 K Potassium
20 Ca Calcium
12 Mg Magnesium
16 S Sulphur
5 B Boron
29 Cu Copper
25 Mn Manganese
26 Fe Iron
20 Zn Zinc

Elixir Zorka mineral fertilizers balanced ratio of nutrients

Primary macroelements

Elixir Zorka complex fertilizers contain nitrogen in ammonia and nitrate form, thus providing adequate crop nutrition with this macroelement.

Secondary macroelements

Elixir Zorka complex mineral fertilizers are enriched with secondary elements and thus provide complete nutrition of plant crops in all stages of growth and development, contributing to better quality and yield.


Microelements are important for the normal growth and development of plants and their participation in numerous metabolic processes gives them an important role in the nutrition process.


7 N Nitrogen

NITROGEN is a necessary primary macroelement and there is no process in plants that is not directly or indirectly affected by nitrogen. This element belongs to the group of yielding elements, because it significantly affects the yield and its key role is reflected in the production of chlorophyll and protein synthesis, so it greatly affects the quality of the product itself.

    15 P Phosphorus

    PHOSPHORUS belongs to the group of primary macroelements; it has a building role because it is part of many organic compounds found in plants. Phosphorus is very important for fertilization processes in plants as well as for good rooting and strengthening of the root system. Plants absorb phosphorus during the entire period of growth and development, but most intensively at the beginning of the growing season. For plant nutrition, the amount of easily accessible (available or soluble) phosphorus is important, and it is mainly phosphorus that is found in the soil solution in the form of easily soluble salts.

    19 K Potassium

    POTASSIUM belongs to the macro-regulatory elements and does not enter into the composition of plant organic compounds. There is more potassium in the vegetative than in the reproductive parts, which is the opposite of nitrogen and phosphorus. It affects photosynthesis, transport of carbohydrates, water regime of plants, activates enzymes, stimulates the growth of young tissue and contributes to a greater tolerance of plants to adverse environmental conditions and diseases.

    Elixir Zorka complex fertilizers contain potassium (expressed as K2O) which comes from potassium chloride or potassium sulfate, it is water-soluble and easily accessible to the plant.


    20 Ca Calcium

    Calcium belongs to the group of necessary secondary, regulatory macroelements and is responsible for the structural and physiological stability of plant tissue, cell division and growth. In the case of fruits and vegetables, calcium is very important because it affects the firmness of the fruits and their quality for preservation, storage and transportation.

    12 Mg Magnesium

    Magnesium is a key secondary macroelement for the growth and development of plants; it is an integral part of the chlorophyll molecule, which affects the process of photosynthesis and creation of organic matter. Good supply of this element contributes to achieving stable and high-quality yields.

    16 S Sulphur

    Sulfur is included in the group of essential and constitutional elements. It is an integral part of proteins and affects their synthesis in plants, and a good supply of this nutrient affects better utilization of nitrogen, proper plant development, increased resistance to pathogens and stressful conditions such as drought, low and high temperatures.

    Elixir Zorka complex mineral fertilizers are enriched with secondary elements and in this way provide complete nutrition of plant crops in all stages of development, contributing to better quality of the product itself and increased yield.


    5 B Boron

    Boron is a microelement necessary for the normal development and functioning of generative organs, i.e. the differentiation of flower buds, flowering, fertilization, forming and development of fruits. In addition to other numerous functions in plants, it also plays an important role in the synthesis and transport of carbohydrates (sugar).

    29 Cu Copper

    Copper is a microelement important for the functioning of several enzymes key in oxidation processes. Thus, it directly affects the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, protein synthesis, carbohydrate turnover, and lignin formation.

    25 Mn Manganese

    Manganese is a microelement important for the functioning of several enzymes key in oxidation processes. Thus, it directly affects the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, protein synthesis, carbohydrate turnover, and lignin formation.

    26 Fe Iron

    Iron enters into the composition of numerous complex organic compounds. It participates in numerous physiological processes in the plant, such as respiration, chlorophyll synthesis, photosynthesis, and nitrogen metabolism. Plants take out relatively small amounts of this element from the soil, and on alkaline soils (pH >7) its deficiency can often occur, which is reflected in plant development and the appearance of chlorosis.

    20 Zn Zinc

    Zinc is a microelement that contributes to the synthesis of plant hormones (auxins) that affect the growth and elongation of cells. It participates in a series of enzymatic processes that affect photosynthesis, protein synthesis, etc.

    Soil as a substrate for growing plants represents the largest chemical industry in the world.

    Mineral nutrition

    The goal of optimal mineral nutrition of plants is to supplement the difference between the needs of the plants and the ability of the soil to supply the plant with certain nutrients. The optimal amount of added nutrients is important, on the one hand, it fully meets the needs of the plants, and on the other hand, it does not leave an excess in the soil.

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    Fertilization recommendations for different cultures

    See our agronomists’ advice regarding the application of Elixir Zorka mineral fertilizers.


    Experiences in crop farming have shown that good results in the production of cereal grains are achieved using NP and NPK formulations with emphasized phosphorus (P).


    The production range of the Elixir Zorka mineral fertilizer factory includes a range of different formulations that meet the requirements of corn production due to their ratio of nutritious elements.


    Sunflower belongs to plants with an increased demand for potassium, so the production technology should include some of the formulations that have a higher proportion of potassium (K).


    Adequate nutrient balancing in the soil is very important for the successful production of soybeans, where stable and high yields cannot be expected without the appropriate application of complex mineral fertilizers.

    Sugar beet

    Sugar beet belongs to plants with an increased demand for potassium and is a big consumer of nutrients. In practice, various NPK formulations with an increased proportion of potassium (K) or PK formulations with a certain ratio of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are used.


    One of the basic prerequisites for achieving stable and high yields of rapeseed is balanced nutrition with mineral fertilizers with an emphasis on nitrogen (N) in the stages from the initial spring growth to flowering.


    Soil analysis is the basis for proper tobacco nutrition. The use of mineral fertilizers with an optimal content of phosphorus (P) and an emphasized content of potassium (K) in the form of sulfate have shown excellent results.


    Bean plants need nitrogen from the soil, that is, from fertilizers, at the beginning of the growing season until nodules are formed on the roots. Also, the presence of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which are absorbed most intensively in the flowering phase, is very significant.


    For the successful production of potatoes, the balance of mineral nutrients in the soil is very important. High yields cannot be achieved on plots where certain mineral elements are missing


    From the point of view of applying nutrients to onions, the greatest needs are in potassium (K) and nitrogen (N), and slightly less in phosphorus (P), therefore, accordingly, you should choose formulations that have an emphasis on potassium (K) and that contain sulfur (S)


    Intensive production and good yields of garlic require timely and high-quality execution of all agrotechnical measures. The needs of garlic in nutrients are mostly related to nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) and somewhat less to phosphorus (P).


    Increased requirements for potassium (K) also determine the choice of formulation that should be applied in the production of watermelons.


    In the initial stages, it consumes smaller amounts of nutrients in order to intensify them in the later stages of growth and development. By yield, this plant species absorbs the most potassium (K) and nitrogen (N), while the need for phosphorus (P) is less.


    Tomatoes, like most vegetable crops, require the most potassium (K) of all macroelements. Its consumption is most intense during the intense growth of the plant, flowering, fruit formation and fruit development


    Paprika, as a vegetable plant species, requires potassium (K) the most out of all macroelements. Its consumption is most intensive during flowering, fruit formation and fruit development


    The emphasis in the needs is certainly on potassium (K) and nitrogen (N), which are important for the quality and yield of the roots. While the need for phosphorus (P) is slightly less, it is also important for proper root development.


    Cabbage has high nutrient requirements considering the large amount of vegetative mass and the yields it achieves. In addition to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), sulfur (S) also plays a major role in metabolism.


    In addition to nitrogen (N), potassium (K) is another key element in the production of this vegetable species, because it affects the transport of carbohydrates and increases the tolerance of eggplant to stressful conditions in the external environment.


    Nitrogen (N) is an element that certainly has a dominant influence on the cucumber yield, but the presence of sufficient amounts of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is necessary for the development of key physiological processes that affect the final yield and quality


    When fertilizing young plants, it is important to provide harmonious nutrition, so that the plants develop properly and grow until full fruit bearing, and special emphasis should be given to nitrogen (N) in these early stages.


    Raspberry is a plant that requires the most potassium (K) during flowering, fruit formation and fruit development. Therefore, fruit bearing raspberry plantations need to be fertilized every year with NPK fertilizers that have an emphasis on potassium (K).


    Strawberries, like raspberries, require the most potassium (K) during flowering, fruit formation and fruit development, and they need to be fertilized with formulations that emphasize this very element.


    During the exploitation period, blueberries require the application of mineral fertilizers with an emphasis on potassium (K). The fact that blueberry belongs to the group of plants sensitive to chlorine (Cl), indicates the need to use potassium in sulfate form.

    Sour cherry

    In the phase before planting sour cherry trees, potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) should be introduced in sufficient quantities based on agrochemical analyses. While by applying basic fertilizers in the fruit bearing period, we maintain their nutrient content in the soil.


    Grape vines belong to the group of plants that have an increased need for potassium (K) as one of the basic elements.

    Mineral fertilizers from the factory to the end consumers

    Factory in Šabac

    Elixir Zorka is synonymous with the production of mineral fertilizers in the region with a tradition longer than 80 years. After the new factory was built in 2013, Zorka offers mineral fertilizers of the highest quality.

    Elixir Prahovo

    Factory in Prahovo

    Elixir Prahovo has a tradition of more than 60 years in the production of chemical products. After privatization in 2011 and modernization of the plant, the production of phosphoric acid began in 2014, and of mineral fertilizers in 2017. The reconstructed aluminium trifluoride factory began operations in 2021.

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